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The 1753 Fry-Jefferson Map and Its Predecessors and Derivatives

Guide to the Fry-Jefferson Map of Virginia and related maps in the Library of Virginia's collection


CARTE DE LA VIRGINIE ET DU MARYLAND Dressée sur la grande carte Angloise de Mrs. Josué Fry et Pierre Jefferson, Par le Sr. Robert de Vaugondy Geographe ordinaire due Roi Avec Privilege 1755
Robert de Vaugondy (1723–1786) E. Haussard, engraver
Paris, 1755–1757
French derivative, State 1
Call number: G3880 1755 .R6

From Paris the well-known and prolific family firm of Robert de Vaugondy (fl. 1731–1778) published one of two editions of Fry and Jefferson’s map of Virginia in five states. Most copies were published in Atlas Universel. By reducing content and word size the firm was able to limit the map to one sheet. In this state, material is missing from the western sections, there is an absence of roads, and the lack of some eastern Virginia place-names leads some scholars to speculate that this Vaugondy derivative is based on the first state of Fry and Jefferson’s map. Country west of the Allegheny Mountains is labeled “Louisiane.”

Elizabeth Haussard (fl. 1749–1760?) engraved the cartouche, becoming the first woman to engrave a map of Virginia. Between them, Haussard and her sister Marie Catherine Haussard (fl. 1752–1758?) engraved at least thirty-seven sheets for Gilles and Didier Robert de Vaugondy’s Atlas. One of this map’s distinguishing features is Haussard’s signature under the cartouche.

Didier Robert de Vaugondy (1723–1786) was appointed Géographe du Roi in 1752, and he and his father (Gilles Robert de Vaugondy, 1688–1766) worked together to publish Atlas Universel (1757). After his father’s death, Didier Robert de Vaugondy ran the family firm. In 1778 Jean Baptiste Fortin took over the business and sold the Vaugondy stock to Charles François Delamarche (1740–1807).

CARTE DE LA VIRGNIE ET DU MARYLAND Dressée sur la grande carte Angloise de Mrs. José Fry et Pierre Jefferson, Par le Sr. Robert de Vaugondy Géographe
Robert de Vaugondy (1723–1786) and Charles François Delmarche
Paris, 1793
French derivative, State 5
Engraving with outline color
Call number: G3880 1793 .R63

The guillotine death of Louis XVI in 1793 caused the publisher to delete the phrase “du Roi” from the imprint. In this state the last three lines of the cartouche have been removed, making Robert de Vaugondy simply “Géographe. The map’s engraver most likely was Charles Jacques Groux (fl. 1778), whose signature replaces Elizabeth Haussard’s. After about 1780, the Fairfax boundary and the western boundary of Pennsylvania were removed and Pennsylvania’s southern boundary was extended on the Vaugondy derivatives.

Carte de la virginie, de la baye chesapeack, et Pays Voisins Pour servir à l’Histoire Générale des Voyages Tirée des meilleures Cartes
Jacques-Nicolas Bellin (1703–1772)
Paris, 1757
State 2
Engraving with outline color
Call number: G3880 1757 .B4 Voorhees Collection

Derived from the Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia, this map appeared in the Histoire Générale des Voyages by Abbé Prevost (Paris, 1738–1775). It shows the area from Philadelphia south to Cape Henry. It also notes locations of towns and the Great Wagon Road that ran from Philadelphia, through the Valley of Virginia, into the Carolinas.

Jacques-Nicolas Bellin was “hydrographer to the king,” and the first hydrographic engineer of the “Dépôt des cartes, plans et journaux du Ministère de la Marine.”

VIRGINIE, MARYLAND en 2 feuilles par Fry et Jefferson Traduit, Corrigé, augmenté A PARIS Chez LE ROUGE Jng. D Geographe du Roi rue des Grands Augustines 1777. Avec Privilege du Roi.
Georges-Louis Le Rouge (1712–1790)
Pairs, 1777
Engraving with outline color
Call number: G3880 1777 .L4

Paris publisher Georges-Louis Le Rouge issued two atlases in 1778 originally published by the London firm of Jefferys and Faden (fl. 1773). His Atlas Amériquain included the second edition of the Fry and Jefferson map published in Paris as plate number 18. By including an inset panel with the western parts of the colony, Le Rouge reduced the four-sheet map to two. Only one state of this map is known to have been published.