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Census Records

Guide to census records available online and at the Library of Virginia.


Agriculture, mortality, and social statistics schedules are available for the census years of 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880. Manufacturing schedules are available for 1820, 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880. Slave schedules are available for 1850 and 1860. They are arranged by county, and then by political subdivision (township, city, ward, etc.).

The detailed information included in these schedules provides a textured overview of life within each community, adding depth to an understanding of individuals living there.

Nonpopulation Census Access at the Library of Virginia

  • Microfilm copies of the Virginia nonpopulation census schedules are available at the Library of Virginia and may be borrowed from the Library through interlibrary loan.

Nonpopulation Census Records Online

Agricultural Schedules

Agricultural schedules of 1850, 1860, and 1870 provide detailed information for each farm, including the name of the owner or manager, number of improved and unimproved acres, value of the farm, farming machinery, livestock, and the amount of farm production over the previous year. 

Exclusions: Not every farm was included in these schedules. In 1850, for example, small farms that produced less than $100 worth of products annually were not included. By 1870, farms of less than three acres or which produced less than $500 worth of products were not included.

1850 Accomack–Charlotte Reel 128
  Chesterfield–Madison Reel 129
  Mathews–York Reel 130
1860 Accomack–Charles City Reel 195
  Charlotte–Halifax Reel 196
  Hanover–Pulaski Reel 197
  Rappanhannock–York Reel 198
1870 Accomack–Carroll Reel 254
  Charles City–Henrico Reel 255
  Henrico (Richmond City)–Patrick Reel 256
  Pittsylvania–York Reel 257
  Recapitulation: Accomack–York Reel 260
1880 Accomack–Bath Reel 308
  Bedford–Caroline Reel 309
  Carroll–Essex Reel 310
  Fairfax–Gloucester Reel 311
  Goochland–Highland Reel 312
  Isle of Wight–Lunenburg Reel 313
  Madison–Norfolk Reel 314
  Northampton–Powhatan Reel 315
  Prince Edward–Rockingham Reel 316
  Russell–Surry Reel 317
  Sussex–York Reel 318

Slave Schedules

Information on enslaved individuals was compiled separately for the 1850 and 1860 censuses. The schedules list the name of the enslaver or overseer and the numbers of those enslaved, but not their names. Information includes name and location of the enslaver; number of those enslaved, listed by age, sex, and color; whether a fugitive; whether manumitted; and whether “deaf, dumb, insane, or idiotic.” Most of the slave schedules list the names of enslavers only; however, a few enumerators chose to list the first names of enslaved individuals.

1850 Accomack–Augusta Reel 117
  Barbour–Campbell Reel 118
  Caroline–Culpeper Reel 119
  Cumberland–Fluvanna Reel 120
  Franklin–Halifax Reel 121
  Hampshire–Jefferson Reel 122
  Kanawha–Louisa Reel 123
  Lunenburg–Nelson Reel 124
  New Kent–Patrick Reel 125
  Pendleton–Rappahannock Reel 126
  Richmond County–York Reel 127
1860 Accomack–Appomattox Reel 188
  Augusta–Calhoun Reel 189
  Campbell–Chesterfield Reel 190
  Clarke–Fairfax Reel 191
  Fauquier–Greene Reel 192
  Greensville–Jefferson Reel 193
  Kanawha–York Reel 194

Mortality Schedules

The mortality schedules have detailed information about people who died in the twelve months preceding the census. For example, the 1860 mortality schedules include persons who died between June 1, 1859 and May 31, 1860. The census recorded name, age, sex, marital status, state or country of birth, month of death, occupation, cause of death, and the length of the final illness. Since Virginia did not begin recording deaths until 1853, the 1850 mortality schedule may be the only record of death for some individuals.

1850 Accomack–York Reel 128
1860 Accomack–York Reel 195
1870 Accomack–York Reel 253
1880 Accomack–Henrico (includes Richmond City) Reel 306
1880 Henrico–York Reel 307

Manufacturing Schedules

Manufacturing schedules in 1820, 1850, and 1860 reported the name of the manufacturer; the type of business or product; the amount of capital invested; the quantities, kinds, and value of raw materials used; the quantities, kinds, and value of product produced annually; the kind of power or machinery used; the number of men and women employed; and the average monthly cost of male and female labor. The 1870 and 1880 censuses recorded such information in greater detail, including, in 1880, supplemental schedules used for specific industries, such as for boot and shoemaking, lumber and saw mills, flour and grist mills.

Exclusions: Small manufacturing operations that produced less than $500 worth of goods were not included.

1820 Accomack–Wythe Reel 20
1850 Accomack–Wythe Reel 131
1860 Accomack–York Reel 198
1870 Accomack–York Reel 258
1880 Accomack–James City Reel 319
1880 King and Queen–York Reel 320

Social Statistics and Supplemental Schedules

Social Schedules provide detailed information about communities. In 1850, 1860 and 1870, these schedules indicate for each political subdivision the value of real estate; annual taxes; schools with numbers of teachers and pupils; libraries with the number of volumes owned; name, type, and circulation of newspapers; churches by denomination with building accommodations and property values; cemeteries, including those no longer functioning; societies and clubs with officers listed, membership statistics, and value of property; the number of native and foreign-born “criminals” and “paupers”; and the average wages paid to farm hands, day laborers, carpenters, and female domestics. Note that these schedules provide only statistical data, not information about specific individuals.

In 1880, specialists were appointed to gather most social statistics, and that information was no longer part of the general census enumeration. The 1880 census instead had a supplemental schedule entitled “Delinquent, Defective, and Delinquent Classes.” It included seven separate lists of individuals, by name, with further information about their conditions. The seven categories were “insane,” “idiots,” “deaf-mutes,” “blind,” “homeless children,” “inhabitants in prison,” and “paupers and indigent persons in institutions.”

1850 Accomack–Wythe Reel 131
1860 Accomack–York Reel 199
1870 Accomack–York Reel 259
1880 Accomack–Henrico Reel 321
1880 Henry–York Reel 322